Functions of bank of England

The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom, responsible for maintaining monetary and financial stability in the country.
Updated: May 30, 2024

3 key takeaways

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  • The Bank of England sets monetary policy, including interest rates, to achieve price stability and support economic growth.
  • It acts as the government’s banker and lender of last resort, providing financial stability to the banking system.
  • The Bank of England issues banknotes and oversees the UK’s payment systems and financial infrastructure.

What is the Bank of England?

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The Bank of England, established in 1694, is the central bank of the United Kingdom. It plays a crucial role in the country’s economy by managing monetary policy, issuing currency, and ensuring the stability of the financial system. The Bank’s primary objectives are to maintain price stability, defined by the government as a 2% inflation target, and to support the economic policies of the government, including those for growth and employment.

Understanding the Bank of England in detail

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Monetary policy:

  • Interest rates: The Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) meets regularly to set the base interest rate, which influences borrowing and lending rates across the economy. Adjusting the interest rate helps control inflation and stimulate or cool economic activity.
  • Quantitative easing: In times of economic downturn, the Bank may implement quantitative easing (QE) by purchasing government and corporate bonds to inject liquidity into the economy, encouraging spending and investment.

Financial stability:

  • Lender of last resort: The Bank of England provides emergency funding to banks facing short-term liquidity problems, helping to prevent bank failures and maintain confidence in the financial system.
  • Regulation and oversight: Through the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) and the Financial Policy Committee (FPC), the Bank oversees the stability of banks, insurers, and the broader financial system, ensuring they are resilient to economic shocks.

Currency issuance:

  • The Bank of England is responsible for issuing banknotes in England and Wales. It designs and distributes notes, incorporating advanced security features to prevent counterfeiting and maintain trust in the currency.

Importance of the Bank of England

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The Bank of England plays a vital role in the UK’s economy, influencing everything from interest rates and inflation to the stability of the financial system and the availability of money and credit.


  • Economic stability: By setting interest rates and using other monetary tools, the Bank helps to keep inflation low and stable, which is crucial for economic growth and stability.
  • Financial confidence: As the lender of last resort and a regulator, the Bank ensures the banking system remains stable, preventing financial crises and maintaining public confidence in the financial system.
  • Currency trust: The Bank’s role in issuing and regulating banknotes ensures that the currency remains secure and trusted by the public.


  • Limited control: While the Bank can influence economic conditions, it cannot control all factors affecting the economy, such as global economic trends or political events.
  • Public perception: Decisions made by the Bank, especially regarding interest rates, can be unpopular, particularly if they lead to higher borrowing costs or affect savings returns.

Real-world application of the Bank of England’s functions

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Monetary policy impact: When the Bank of England adjusts interest rates, it directly affects the cost of borrowing for individuals and businesses. For example, a rate increase can make mortgages and loans more expensive, potentially cooling off an overheated housing market or controlling inflation.

Financial crisis management: During the 2008 financial crisis, the Bank of England played a crucial role by cutting interest rates to historic lows and implementing quantitative easing to support the economy and stabilize the financial system.

Regulatory influence: The Bank’s regulatory functions help ensure that financial institutions operate safely and soundly. This was evident during the COVID-19 pandemic when the Bank took measures to ensure banks could continue lending and supporting the economy despite significant economic disruptions.

For further exploration, consider learning about the history of the Bank of England, its role during key historical economic events, and the tools and strategies it uses to manage monetary policy and financial stability. Understanding these aspects provides a deeper insight into how central banks operate and their importance in the global economy.

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Arti is a specialized AI Financial Assistant at Invezz, created to support the editorial team. He leverages both AI and the knowledge base, understands over 100,000... read more.