Top 7 best crypto exchanges in New Zealand for 2024

Our panel of crypto analysts, experts, and traders periodically test 50+ leading exchange services to find the best crypto exchange in NZ.
By:
Updated: Apr 5, 2024
Listen

To create this list our expert panel performs a series of tests to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the best cryptocurrency exchanges. The tests include creating an account, placing trades, and transferring money to a secure crypto wallet.

We then research the specific needs of Kiwi crypto users, such as which payment methods are available, which currencies you can deposit, and the trading fees in New Zealand, and gather feedback in the form of a user review survey.

Each expert assigns a score, which is combined with the results of further research to create a final ranking to answer the question: what are the best crypto exchanges in New Zealand for Kiwi users? 

Learn more about our panel and how we rate and review platforms. Or read on to find out what is the best NZ crypto exchange.

What is the best crypto exchange NZ in 2024?

Copy link to section

Our expert rankings reveal that Plus500 is the best cryptocurrency exchange in New Zealand.

The list below shows the three best Kiwi crypto exchanges that excelled in our tests by combining low transaction fees, high security, and ease of use.

Sort by:

1
Min. Deposit
$ 100
Best offer
User Score
10
CFDs on BTC, ETH, LTC, NEO, XRP, IOTA, EOS, BAB, ADA, TRX, XMR
No need to open a crypto exchange account or use a special wallet
Regulated Broker - FCA, ASIC, CySEC (license number 250/14)
Start Trading
Payment Methods:
American Express, Apple Pay, Bank Transfer, Credit Card, Debit Card, Discover, Google Pay, Mastercard, PayPal, SEPA, Trustly, Visa, , skrill
Full Regulations:
ASIC, FCA, FSA, MAS, cysec-250-14-regulator, isa-regulator

CFD service. 82% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

2
Min. Deposit
$ 100
Best offer
User Score
9.8
Trade top Cryptos such as Bitcoin
Litecoin and Ethereum plus more
Zero commissions and no bank fees on transactions
Start Trading
Payment Methods:
American Express, Bank Transfer, Credit Card, Debit Card, Discover, Mastercard, MoneyBookers, PayPal, Rapid Transfer, SEPA, Visa, WebMoney, Wire Transfer, neteller, , skrill
Full Regulations:
ASIC, FSA, FSCA, MiFID
CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 71% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.
3
Min. Deposit
$ 1
Best offer
User Score
9.5
0% deposit fees, 0% withdrawal fees, 0% trading commissions
Set up automated trades and up to 50 limit orders with ease
Buy and sell 90+ cryptos and utility tokens, precious metals and national currencies with as little as $1
Start Trading
Payment Methods:
Full Regulations:

Terms Apply. Cryptoassets are highly volatile. Your capital is at risk.

Top 7 best Kiwi crypto exchanges, reviewed

Copy link to section

1. Plus500. Best for international CFD trading*

From 2%

Fees

$100

Minimum deposit

3,000

No. assets

Yes

Demo/virtual account

Pros & Cons

Can get a free demo account A great mobile platform Well regulated in multiple jurisdictions Wide variety of CFDs to trade Several good risk management tools
No support on trading information and education Website isn’t brilliantly designed to help users find answers to their questions No MetaTrader trading platform compatibility

Overview

We love Plus500 because it is one of the industry’s most transparent and reliable brokers. Its fees are clear and you’ll know exactly what you will be paying before you make a trade. Its technology driven platform gives access to over 2800 instruments, including CFDs on stocks, forex, commodities, and cryptocurrencies among several others.

Plus500 has something for all types of traders, no matter what level of experience. It’s zero commission and tight spreads make it a top choice for day traders and its trading academy is packed with educational content, perfect for beginners just starting. 

For accurate instrument availability, visit plus500.com.

The fees: There are no commission fees on any trades with Plus500 and it makes it money through the Bid/Ask spread. Spread starts from 0.01% or 0.9 pips and varies depending on the instrument. Additional fees include overnight funding which is dependant on trade size and guaranteed stop orders, which add a minimum of 10% to the spread. There is an inactivity charge of £10 per month for accounts not logged in for three months. 

*Based on a comparison of 60+ leading brokers and trading platforms.

Highlights

Visit Plus500 Plus500 Review

CFD service. 82% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

2. AvaTrade. Best regulated broker for secure trading

From 0.13%

Fees

$100

Minimum deposit

1,000

No. assets

Yes

Demo/virtual account

Pros & Cons

Trade 1000+ CFDs with competitive spreads Regulated by Tier 1 financial bodies across the world Consistently highly rated trading platform on web and mobile Offers social trading through its proprietary AvaSocial platform
Spreads are competitive without being industry-leading Some assets are only available to trade through the MetaTrader software

Overview

We love AvaTrade because it offers powerful trading software to anyone who wants to trade professionally. AvaTrade is a CFD broker where you can trade more than 800 markets, including forex, stocks, commodities, indices, ETFs, bonds, and cryptocurrency.  

AvaTrade integrates with trading software like MetaTrader 4 and 5 and boasts its own bespoke and award-winning mobile app software, AvaTradeGo. AvaTrade has been around since 2006 and is extensively regulated in Europe, Australia, Japan, British Virgin Islands, UAE, and South Africa.

The fees: There is no commission on any trading. AvaTrade makes money from the Bid/Ask spread instead. Stock spreads start from 0.13 and forex spreads start at 0.7 pips. Positions left overnight are charged a swap fee that varies depending on size. An inactivity fee of £50 per month is applicable if you don’t log in to your account for three consecutive months. 

Highlights

Visit AvaTrade AvaTrade Review
CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 71% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

3. Uphold. Best for building long term wealth

$0.99

Fees

...

Minimum deposit

300

No. assets

Yes

Demo/virtual account

Pros & Cons

Wide range of cryptocurrencies available Zero deposit and withdrawal fees Crypto wallets to store your coins Low minimum deposits and fast account set up
Spreads can be high for some cryptocurrencies Services vary depending on region Customer support is limited

Overview

We love Uphold because it’s a regulated and transparent digital asset platform. There are 160+ cryptocurrencies available to hold and trade, along with three fiat currencies; GBP, EUR, and USD. 

Uphold’s key features include the ability to schedule transactions to avoid trying to time the market. With a focus on long term wealth building, Uphold also offers the ability to earn rewards of up to 25% on staked crypto, as well as 4% cashback paid in XRP for purchases made with the Uphold card.

The fees: Crypto spreads start from 0.9% and are usually lower than 1.3% for BTC and ETH. Other cryptocurrency spreads are higher. Average spreads on fiat currency are 0.2%. There is a $0.99 fee for transactions under $100 made with the Uphold card.

Highlights

Visit Review

Terms Apply. Cryptoassets are highly volatile. Your capital is at risk.

4. Binance. Best crypto platform for trading altcoins

0.1%

Fees

...

Minimum deposit

400

No. assets

Yes

Demo/virtual account

Pros & Cons

Supports the trading and storage of over 360 coins Offers multiple trading pairs (BTC, ETH, BNB, and USDT) High maximum daily withdrawal limit Available globally Low trading fees, particularly when using BNB (Binance Coin)
Occasionally slow customer support Centralised, rather than decentralised

Overview

We love Binance because it’s the largest crypto platform in the world. More than 30 million people use Binance to trade 350+ cryptocurrencies. Binance also offers a range of other services, such as staking, crypto loans, and derivatives markets such as futures and options.

The Binance app is designed to appeal to everyone, regardless of your experience. The ‘Lite’ version slims everything down to the basics, while the regular app is one of the most advanced crypto trading platforms out there. 

The fees: There are no fees for trading Bitcoin. All other cryptocurrency spot trades come with a 0.1% fee. If you own Binance coin (BNB), you receive a 25% discount on all trading fees. Binance does not charge deposit fees but withdrawal fees are variable depending on the crypto.

Highlights

Visit Binance Binance Review

5. Bitstamp. Best for professionals & trading with APIs

...

Fees

...

Minimum deposit

...

No. assets

No

Demo/virtual account

Pros & Cons

Low trading fees and no spreads Supports multiple fiat currencies Regulated platform
Limited number of coins available Major fees on deposits and withdrawals Liquidity has suffered due to the limited selection of coins and most liquidity is concentrated in top names like Bitcoin and Ether

Overview

We love Bitstamp because it has a proud reputation for top performance over more than decade. Bitstamp offers trading on 75+ cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin, while staking is available on Ethereum and Algorand. 

Bitstamp was one of the first crypto platforms to set up shop in 2011 and has built up trust since. It’s designed with institutional traders in mind, so it prides itself on near 100% uptime. It stores 95% of assets in cold storage and offers a sliding scale of fees so that high volume traders get the best rates.

The fees: There are no trading fees if you trade less than $1,000 in a rolling 30-day period. Above that, fees start from 0.4% and decline the higher your trading volume is. There is a 15% charge for staking. Withdrawals are charged a flat €3 fee.

Highlights

Visit Bitstamp Bitstamp Review

6. OKX. Best for futures and margin trading

...

Fees

...

Minimum deposit

...

No. assets

No

Demo/virtual account

Pros & Cons

Stake ETH to freely mint FIFA WORLD CUP 2022 NFTs & big prizes 350+ cryptocurrencies & NFTs available across 650+ trading pairs Crypto spot & derivative markets available Pay using hundreds of local payment methods
Not available in the US Lack of fiat withdrawal options

Overview

We love OKX because it’s an adaptable and flexible exchange, with an app that’s available in three different versions depending on how you trade. Choose from the beginner-friendly Lite version, Web3 option for NFT traders, or the Pro version for a plethora of trading tools. 

From an app or desktop you can trade 350+ crypto coins on one of the world’s top crypto exchanges. You can fund your account easily, through a variety of simple payment methods, and a sliding scale of fees that means you can access discounts by holding the OKB token or trading high volumes.

The fees: Regular users pay a 0.1% fee on spot crypto trades. OKB crypto holders are entitled to a discount, up to 0.02% off for holding more than 2,000 coins. High volume traders are also entitled to a discount, with the cheapest fees available for traders with a 30 day trading volume above $10,000,000,000.

Highlights

Visit OKX OKX Review

7. Kraken: Best for simple, global cryptocurrency trading from your phone

...

Fees

...

Minimum deposit

...

No. assets

No

Demo/virtual account

Pros & Cons

Cheap/ free deposits in EUR and cheap deposits for the USA Margin trading and Futures supported Transparency - it was the first exchange to carry out proof of reserves Low fees in comparison to other exchanges
Catered towards professional traders with large trading volumes Slow account verification in comparison to other brokers

Overview

We love Kraken because it’s a beginner-friendly crypto trading platform, one that’s designed to make it quick and convenient to buy and sell crypto on the go. Creating an account is free, then you’re ready to make your first step, with no time-consuming verification periods.

With 200+ crypto tokens at your fingertips, a 24/7 support system, and an extensive educational platform, Kraken is the perfect place to take your first steps into crypto. It’s perfect for international traders outside the US, and is available in 190 countries around the world.

The fees: Kraken charges a fee of between 0-0.26% on every crypto trade. There are no costs to set up an account and no flat trading fees.

Highlights

Visit Kraken Kraken Review

How to choose the best NZ crypto trading platform

Copy link to section

With so many options out there, you should take care of picking the right Kiwi crypto platform for you. Things like the exchange fees, storage facilities, and range of coins available should all impact your choice. 

To help you make the right decision, here are some questions to ask yourself as you research each cryptocurrency exchange.

1. How much does the exchange charge to trade?

Copy link to section

There can be a big difference in the trading fees charged by each crypto account. While all exchanges generally offer competitive fees, what they charge may vary widely. Taking the time to compare them can save you money. 

Trading fees are usually charged as a percentage of the trade. The best crypto exchange accounts, with low fees, will charge 1% or less of the trade amount. Some services charge a lot higher, so when it comes to paying fees, it is important to research the different platforms available.

You may also have to pay deposit and withdrawal fees. You rarely have to pay for depositing fiat currency like NZ dollars via a bank account or credit or debit card, but you may be charged a flat withdrawal fee. There’s often a significant charge for withdrawals made in crypto assets.

2. How does the exchange store customer funds?

Copy link to section

Crypto exchanges are available widely, but the important question is whether they are regulated in New Zealand. It’s the regulation that protects if something happens to the exchange and you lose the money you hold on there.

You want to pick a reputable exchange that safely stores its customers’ funds. The best Bitcoin exchanges in New Zealand should store your funds in segregated accounts and, ideally, in cold storage (offline). Choosing a Kiwi crypto trading account that a reputable accountancy firm has audited can give you extra peace of mind.

3. Is the platform easy to use?

Copy link to section

A good user experience means more than being able to navigate the website easily. Think about how you plan to trade: are you going to trade from your phone? How are you going to manage your crypto portfolio? Are you after particular analysis tools, charts, or software integrations?

Armed with that information, you can start to narrow down your shortlist by considering if the exchange suits you. For instance, if you plan to do a lot of trading on the go, you should focus on the platform offering the best crypto app in New Zealand. Advanced trading tools and things like margin trading are especially important for experienced crypto investors or traders. 

4. What is the account verification process?

Copy link to section

When you create an account, you’ll often be asked to supply personal details and a form of ID to verify your identity. It’s normally a prerequisite for any cryptocurrency service to be regulated in NZ.

It’s a good idea to check the verification process before signing up. That way, you can have the relevant documents to hand to create a seamless sign up process. Or, if you want to avoid supplying personal details, you can filter out the crypto trading accounts in NZ that demand verification to use them.

5. How many cryptocurrencies are available?

Copy link to section

You can buy Bitcoin in New Zealand through any cryptocurrency platform, but beyond that the number of available coins can vary. If you want to trade altcoins, look for other Kiwi cryptocurrency platforms with many coins and ‘crosses’, where you can swap from one crypto to another. 

6. Which currencies can you deposit?

Copy link to section

For most people, a crypto account is a means to transfer local fiat currencies into cryptocurrency. However, many crypto brokers in New Zealand only accept US dollar deposits, rather than NZD.

If you don’t have access to US Dollars, then it might be best to choose a large exchange like Binance or a local exchange that’s specifically designed for crypto traders in NZ and which offers NZD to crypto trading pairs.

7. Which payment methods are accepted?

Copy link to section

Decide how you want to pay for your crypto. If you want to fund an account using bank transfers or debit card payments, then most Kiwi crypto exchanges accept deposits via a bank transfer and you don’t need to worry.

A cryptocurrency exchange is less likely to accept alternative payment methods, like PayPal and other e-wallet services. The larger ones, such as Binance, do accept a wide variety of payment methods, but it’s still a good idea to check whether you can pay how you want before signing up.

8. Does it offer additional features, like staking or lending?

Copy link to section

Think about what you want to use the exchange to influence your decision. Do you want to store or stake your coins? Lend them to earn interest, or borrow crypto yourself?

You can buy crypto in New Zealand through any Kiwi crypto broker that’s regulated, but not all platforms offer all these services. You may be happy to juggle multiple logins and use different exchanges, but it’s normally easier to use one service, at least to start with.

What type of Kiwi crypto platforms are there?

Copy link to section

Most crypto investors use a centralised, global exchange like Binance or Coinbase. But cryptocurrency exchanges in NZ come in different forms. Here is a breakdown of the most common types:

  • Centralised. In a centralised exchange, an authority, in this case, a company, operates the service. You create an account and deposit money, and the entity holds the funds in the middle. When you make trades, they go through the central authority. The biggest crypto trading exchange, Binance, is an example of this platform type.
  • Decentralised. On decentralised exchanges, there is no central authority. Instead, buyers and sellers deal with each other directly, and the crypto trading platforms are just the mechanism for connecting them. You can’t create an account; the crypto is sent from one wallet to another when a transaction takes place
  • Peer-to-peer (P2P). A peer-to-peer exchange operates like a decentralised exchange, but a central body still acts as the intermediary. Each side in a transaction makes the payment, and the central body releases the funds as soon as both sides have sent money.

Can I buy traditional financial assets on a crypto exchange in New Zealand?

Copy link to section

On some platforms you can, but a better option is to sign up for a dedicated service that offers the specific assets you want to trade. The best trading platforms in NZ allow you to buy and sell stocks, while the best forex broker in New Zealand is best for currency trading. The top CFD brokers in NZ offer a mixture of all these assets.

How to buy crypto on the best Bitcoin exchange in NZ

Copy link to section

Follow this short guide to learn how to buy Bitcoin in New Zealand. This method is simple and is the same process whether you want to buy and sell Bitcoin, or whether you prefer to trade crypto instead. 

Step 1. Sign up to Plus500

Copy link to section

We recommend Plus500 as the best crypto trading platform for Kiwi users.

Step 2. Create an account

Copy link to section

You need to supply some personal contact details, such as your name and email address, in order to set up an account. Many Kiwi crypto exchanges usually will ask for several documents when verifying your account. Some of these include a passport, driving licence, a Kiwi Access Card, utility bill, and bank statements. You will be required to pass verification before you can use your account to buy cryptocurrency in New Zealand.

Step 3. Deposit funds in your chosen currency

Copy link to section

Go to the bank or deposit section of your crypto trading platform account. Here, you can enter the amount you wish to deposit, choose your preferred payment method, such as a bank account, credit or debit cards, and transfer the money you want to use to buy crypto onto the exchange.

Step 4. Search your favourite crypto

Copy link to section

You purchase Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies by typing the coin name or symbol in the search box. For example, to buy Bitcoin online, search for the symbol BTC. Then you enter the details of the trade. 

Step 5. Buy cryptocurrency in NZ

Copy link to section

Finally, to buy Bitcoin or any other crypto asset, hit the ‘buy’ or ‘trade’ button. Fill in how much cryptocurrency you want to buy, and execute the trade.

Step 6. Transfer your cryptocurrency to a crypto wallet (optional)

Copy link to section

Your crypto assets will show up in your exchange wallet once the trade goes through. You can leave them there or move them to a dedicated crypto wallet. 

With a wallet, you have more control over your money, but it’s a bit more inconvenient if you plan on trading regularly. You can learn more about how to find the best Bitcoin wallet in New Zealand below.

Quick answers to key questions

Copy link to section
Copy link to section

Yes, cryptocurrency is legal in New Zealand. The New Zealand government has clarified that crypto is a legitimate form of payment as long as the exchange of cryptocurrency for fiat currency occurs with a registered exchange.

Is crypto regulated in NZ? 

Copy link to section

While cryptocurrency itself is legal, cryptocurrency exchanges and related businesses are regulated in New Zealand. The Financial Markets Authority (FMA) oversees crypto exchanges, brokers, issuers, and other financial services. Cryptocurrency exchanges and brokers in New Zealand must register with the Department of Internal Affairs and comply with anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism (AML/CFT) regulations.

Are New Zealand crypto exchanges regulated? 

Copy link to section

Major cryptocurrency exchanges that operate in New Zealand must register with the FMA and meet certain standards. This includes exchanges like EasyCrypto, Independent Reserve, and BitPrime. Any exchange trading crypto to fiat currency (NZD) must register as a financial service provider with the Financial Markets Authority and implement know-your-customer (KYC) rules.

Many of the best crypto exchanges in NZ also hold regulatory licences from various authorities. The table below includes the top three crypto platforms NZ and where they are regulated.

Region Plus500 regulators AvaTrade regulators Uphold regulators
Africa FSA FSCA
Asia FSA
Australasia ASIC, FMA ASIC
Europe FCA, CySEC CBI, MiFID, CySEC FSA
International BVIFSC, FRSA
North America FinCEN
South America
View more > Plus500 > AvaTrade > Uphold >

Do I have to pay tax on crypto in New Zealand? 

Copy link to section

Yes, you must pay taxes on cryptocurrency profits and income in New Zealand. Cryptocurrencies are treated as an asset, in the same way a stock would be, and subject to capital gains tax when sold at a profit. If you sell crypto at a loss, it can be claimed as a tax deduction. You may also need to pay income tax if you receive crypto from your employer, business, or other sources.

How much does it cost to buy Bitcoin in NZ?

Copy link to section

The amount it costs to buy Bitcoin in New Zealand varies depending on the exchange or platform you use. There are many different types of fees that apply when you buy BTC in NZ. Below are a few of the most common trading fees for buying crypto in New Zealand.

Fee Plus500 fees AvaTrade fees Uphold fees
Trading fees No No No
Inactivity fees Yes Yes No
Rollover/overnight fees Yes Yes Yes
Withdrawal fees No No No
Spreads Yes Yes Yes
Conversion fees Yes No Yes
View more > Plus500 > AvaTrade > Uphold >

In addition to the fees above, you will also have to pay a spread, which is the difference between the buy and sell price of Bitcoin and other cryptos. Spreads are different with all crypto exchanges and you can use the information below to compare the BTC spread at some of New Zealand’s best crypto brokers.

Product Plus500 spreads AvaTrade spreads Uphold spreads
Stock CFDs 0.10% From 0.13%
ETF CFDs 0.10% From 0.13%
Forex CFDs 0.8 pips From 0.9 pips
Crypto CFDs 2% From 0.15% over market
Index CFDs 0.20% From 0.03 over market
Commodity CFDs 0.50% From $0.0015 over market
View all tradable assets > Plus500 > AvaTrade > Uphold >

Can I deposit using NZD to a cryptocurrency account? 

Copy link to section

It is possible to deposit New Zealand dollars (NZD) directly to a cryptocurrency exchange based in New Zealand. Many exchanges like EasyCrypto and Independent Reserve support NZD deposits through local bank transfers. This makes it easy to buy crypto using fiat currency in New Zealand.

Are NZD trading pairs available on New Zealand crypto platforms?

Copy link to section

Popular cryptocurrency exchanges in New Zealand offer NZD trading pairs. For example, you can trade coins like Bitcoin and Ethereum directly against fiat currencies like the NZD without first converting to a stablecoin like USDT. Having NZD trading pairs available makes crypto trading simpler for NZ residents.

Can I trade crypto with leverage in New Zealand?

Copy link to section

Yes, many of New Zealand’s leading crypto exchanges offer the ability to trade on margin with leverage. This means you don’t need to deposit large sums of NZD into your account and can buy Bitcoin with lower funds.

However, leverage is risky and best suited to traders who understand the risks involved. The table below includes the leverage available from the top Kiwi crypto exchanges in 2024.

Product Plus500 maximum leverage AvaTrade maximum leverage Uphold maximum leverage
Stock CFDs 1:5 10:1
ETF CFDs 1:5 20:1
Forex CFDs 1:30 400:1
Crypto CFDs 1:2 25:1
Index CFDs 1:20 200:1
Commodity CFDs Up to 1:20 200:1
View more > Plus500 > AvaTrade > Uphold >

Your verdict: best crypto exchange in NZ, user reviews

Copy link to section

As part of our research process, we gather feedback from regular users of each of the top crypto exchanges in New Zealand.

We’ve pooled all that data together to give you a complete picture of what people just like you feel about each service.

Review source Plus500 rating AvaTrade rating Uphold rating
Trustpilot 4 4.7
Google Play Store 4.3 4.0
App Store 4.1 4.4
View more > Plus500 > AvaTrade > Uphold >

What is the best crypto wallet in New Zealand?

Copy link to section

Wallets are private and unregulated, so they are available everywhere, to everyone, rather than being restricted according to where you live. MetaMask and Trust Wallet are a couple of the best crypto wallets and they are available all over the world. 

However, there’s a trend towards crypto services operating as all-in-one platforms so you can use one account that acts as your exchange and wallet. The best option for most beginners is to sign up for a service like Binance or Bitstamp, where you can buy crypto on the exchange and then store it on the same platform.

Find the top cryptocurrency exchanges in NZ

FAQs

Copy link to section
What is the best NZ crypto exchange?
What’s the best crypto platform for beginners in NZ?
What’s the cheapest Kiwi exchange with the lowest fees in New Zealand?
What’s the safest crypto exchange in New Zealand?
Can I buy cryptocurrency in New Zealand?
Which Bitcoin wallet is best in New Zealand?
What happened to Cryptopia?


Fact-checking & references
Risk disclaimer
James Knight
Editor of Education

James is the Editor of Education for Invezz, where he covers topics from across the financial world, from the stock market, to cryptocurrency, to macroeconomic markets.... read more.